The study includes results from 232 people from 22 countries. The mean age of this group is 30.34 with the youngest being 15 and the eldest being 81. For the purposes of this study, 6 age groups were established: 1-18, 19-24, 25-35, 36-50, 51-69, and 70 and older. Please see figure 3-1 for a graphical representation of the number of participants in the aforementioned age groups.

Figure 3.1 - Age Groups

Both sexes were represented in this study. Females accounted for 144 survey results and males accounted for 88. The unequal distribution between the sexes relates to the procedures for presenting the survey to the public. (see the “Procedures” section below for more details)

Figure 3.2 - Gender

The Survey

The survey consists of 28 questions. The first three ask for geographic, age, and gender information. Questions 4-15 ask for color association information. All the color association questions require that the participant associate something to one of the following colors: Black, Blue, Brown, Green, Grey, Orange, Purple, Red, White, or Yellow. The colors were listed in alphabetical order and included a small example of the colors in question. The aforementioned colors are listed in Osgood’s atlas of affective meaning as colors that carry a high affective value (Cross-Cultural Universals of Affective Meaning). Questions 16 and 17 ask the participant to give their favorite and least favorite color of the colors listed (same colors as questions 4-15). And the last set of questions (18-28) ask the participant to rate from 1 to 5 the frequency they use (or perform) one of the listed specific Internet activitites. A score of 1 correlates to not performing that activity at all and a score of 5 correlates to performing that activity “all of the time.”

The Questions included in the Survey:

1. What country best represents your culture?
2. What is your age?
3. Gender
4. Which do you think best represents something cheap / inexpensive?
5. Which color do you think best represents reliability / dependability?
6. Which color best represents trust?
7. Which color best represents security?
8. Which color best represents speed?
9. Which color best represents fun?
10. Which color best represents high-quality?
11. Which color best represents high-technology?
12. Which color best represents loneliness / desperation?
13. Which color best represents fear / terror?
14. Which color best represents disease / health problems?
15. Which color best represents courage / bravery?
16. Of the listed colors, which is your favorite?
17. Which is your least favorite color?

Please rate from 1 to 5 the frequency with which you perform the following activities. 5 is very often, and 1 means that you don't perform this activity at all.
Number code:
1 = "Not at all."
2 = "Very rarely"
3 = "Sometimes"
4 = "Often"
5 = "All the time."

18. Shopping
19. Communicate (e-mail, chat, message boards, etc.)
20. Research (work / school)
21. Selling goods (e.g. ebay.com)
22. Get the latest news
23. Get the latest weather report
24. Play games
25. Download and/or listen to music
26. Download and/or watch movies
27. Express yourself (visual art) – (e.g. display art, photography, etc.)
28. Express yourself (written word) – (e.g. stories, poetry, etc.)


A short pretest took place from January 24th to January 30th. The web form was tested in multiple browsers (e.g. Microsoft Internet Explorer 4.0, 5.0, 6.0 (all for Microsoft Windows (version 5.0 for Mac), Netscape 4.7, 6.x, and 7.x for Microsoft Windows, Red Hat Linux, Phoenix .5 for Microsoft Windows and Linux platforms, and Safari Public Beta v60 for Apple computers.

The web form was also tested under multiple submission conditions. That’s when two people submit results simultaneously. This was to ensure that the data submitted would collect without error under moderate traffic. Once the form was working properly, the questions were presented to a small group of people. Some minor changes were made to correct errors and to better word questions (e.g. changing the first question from “What country are you from?” to “What country best represents your culture?”). Because this project began with the intention to compare and contrast cultural differences and similarities between assorted culture groups, the choice to re-word some of the questions was necessary. Although the focus of the project changed (due to the type of results gathered) the results that were collected still supplied enough information to examine other interesting comparisons.


Participants learned about the survey through several forms of online communication and verbal communication. The majority of the participants learned of the survey through email campaigns and posts on educational message boards. The link to the survey was also listed on multicultural public message boards as well as some international (culturally focused) message boards in Germany, Hong Kong, the Philippines, and Canada. This was an attempt to earn results from non-US publics. Aside from these online communications, several phone calls were made to colleagues in different vocational environments. These verbal advertisements were made during the last third of the survey’s public timeline. As stated on the homepage, the goal was to obtain 500 submissions and once failure of reaching that goal set in, phone calls were made to help supply enough results to top out above 200.